Lambert Series, the Arithmetic Function \(r(n)\) and Gauss’s Probability Integral

In this article we will study some properties of Lambert series. Then, using Lambert series relative to the representation of integers as sum of two squares, we will compute the value of Gauss’s classical probability integral. 1) Dirichlet generating functions Let’s briefly recall some properties of Dirichlet generating functions. Definition 1.1Given Read more…

The Principle of Inclusion-Exclusion

The principle of inclusion-exclusion is an important result of combinatorial calculus which finds applications in various fields, from Number Theory to Probability, Measurement Theory and others. In this article we consider different formulations of the principle, followed by some applications and exercises. For further information, see for example [1] and Read more…