The Principle of Inclusion-Exclusion

The principle of inclusion-exclusion is an important result of combinatorial calculus which finds applications in various fields, from Number Theory to Probability, Measurement Theory and others. In this article we consider different formulations of the principle, followed by some applications and exercises. For further information, see for example [1] and Read more…

Introduction to Fractals – Koch Snowflake

Euclidean geometry studies geometric objects such as lines, triangles, rectangles, circles, etc. Fractals are also geometric objects; however, they have specific properties that distinguish them and cannot be classified as objects of classical geometry. Although Mandelbrot (1924-2010) is generally considered the father of the scientific theory of fractals, in reality the ideas underlying Read more…